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The text on this page is taken from an equivalent page of the IEHIAS-project.

BPA is extensively employed in the production of epoxy resins and polycarbonate plastics and has estrogenic activity

Bisphenol-A as a biomarker

Sample collection and storage


BPA can be analyzed in blood (serum, cord, red blood cells), in breast milk, urine and feces


  • Food is the main uptake route of BPA
  • Exposure from water and atmospheric pollution may be relevant
  • In rats, BPA is rapidly absorbed, metabolized and excreted (2-3 days)
  • Data from humans show BPA metabolization and excretion within 24 hours, with virtually no accumulation

Sampling conditions:

Both blood and breast milk sampled can be gathered and stored using standard procedures. Samples are stored at -20°C

Sample measurement

Analytical aspects:

  • Standard measurement methods include combinations of GC, LC, MS and HPLC techniques;
  • Detection limits in breast milk are reported below 1 ng/ml, and 0.6 ng/ml in fresh and seawater

Performance characteristics:

Recoveries of spiked BPA in cord blood are 65-120% and coefficients of variation are blow 15%. Intra- and inter-day variability is generally below 15%.


Validated analytical methods are developed for cord blood, urine, and other matrices

Confounding factors:

BPA patterns may depend on food consumption patterns

Data interpretation

Concentrations reported in literature:

  • Breast milk: 0.8-1.1 ng/ml
  • Urine: 1.28 ng/ml
  • Cord blood: ND – 4.05 ng/ml
  • Blood levels: 0.41 ng/ml

Dose-response/effect relationships:

Significant increase in prostate size, decreased epididymal weight and longer anogenital distance in mice

Time trend, geographical variation, susceptibel groups:

No consistent data are available

See also

Integrated Environmental Health Impact Assessment System
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