Bone dose-responses of fish consumption

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Original author: Henna Karvonen, Foodfiles Ltd 2006.

The effects of fish on bones.

Ecological, descriptive and cross-sectional studies Cohort and case-control studies Exposure data from cohort and case-control studies Interventions Exposure data from interventions Comments
Bone mineral density + + Fish - There is firm evidence on the importance of vitamin D on bone formation and metabolism and even prevention of osteoporosis. Fish is the most important dietary source of vitamin D when excluding fortified food items. However direct evidence on the effects of fish on bone mineral density or osteoporosis is limited to few observational studies among women in Japan
Osteoporosis + + Fish -

- No data, + Initial findings, ++ Replicate studies, +++ Plenty of data


  • Bischoff-Ferrari HA, Willett WC, Wong JB, Giovannucci E, Dietrich T, Dawson-Hughes B: Fracture prevention with vitamin D supplementation: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. JAMA. 2005 May 11;293(18):2257-64.
  • Calvo MS, Whiting SJ: Overview of the proceedings from Experimental Biology 2004 symposium: vitamin D insufficiency: a significant risk factor in chronic diseases and potential disease-specific biomarkers of vitamin D sufficiency.