Diabetes and glucose dose-responses of fish consumption

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Original author: Henna Karvonen, Foodfiles Ltd 2006.

Evidence on the effects of fish on diabetes and blood glucose.

Ecological, descriptive and cross-sectional studies Cohort and case-control studies Exposure data from cohort and case-control studies Interventions Exposure data from interventions Comments
Glycemic control in diabetes N.A. N.A +++ Fish oil 1-2 g of fish oil/day has no effect on glycemic control in diabetes, whereas higher intake may cause adverse effects on glycemic control
Development of diabetes ++ ++ Fish + Fish Data insufficient for drawing conclusions on efficacy Interventions have been carried out among subjects with impaired glucose tolerance or metabolic syndrome and the treatment has consisted also other life style related changes besides increased fish consumption
Cardiovascular disease among diabetic subjects - + Fish - Even thought evidence on diabetic subjects is limited, the carciovascular health of diabetic subjects is likely to benefit on fish consumption at least at the same level as general population
Ig A nephropathy N.A. N.A. ++ Fish oil Endpoints in interventions: end stage renal failure, serum creatinine level, proteinuria, renal tissue damage
Psoriasis + - + Fish oil In interventions fish oils have been use as primary treatment or as concomitant therapy
Systemic inflammatory response (in surgery, trauma or critical illness) N.A. N.A. ++ Fish oil Only little data on hard endpoints like mortality or length of hospital stay, most of the data on biomarkers

- No data, + Initial findings, ++ Replicate studies, +++ Plenty of data


  • Erkkilä AT, Lichtenstein AH, Mozaffarian D, Herrington DM: Fish intake is associated with a reduced progression of coronary artery atherosclerosis in postmenopausal women with coronary artery disease. Am J Clin Nutr. 1004;80:626-32.
  • Hu FB, Cho E, Rexrode KM, Albert CM, Manson JE: Fish and long-chain omega-3 fatty acid intake and risk of coronary heart disease and total mortality in diabetic women. Circulation. 2003;107(14):1852-7.
  • Friedberg CE, Janssen MJ, Heine RJ, Grobbee DE: Fish oil and glycemic control in diabetes. A meta-analysis. Diabetes Care. 1998;21(4):494-500.
  • Montori VM, Farmer A, Wollan PC, Dinneen SF: Fish oil supplementation in type 2 diabetes: a quantitative systematic review. Diabetes Care. 2000;23(9):1407-15.