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Homework 1

2. What is pragmatism?

  • Theory and practice are not perceived as separate entities, but instead they are seen as deeply intertwined

6. What is benefit-risk assessment?

  • A process intended to qualitatively or quantitatively estimate the benefits and risks of an exposure (or lack of exposure). It includes the potential to integrate both benefits and risks into comparable measures.

19. What does it mean that the results of assessments can be considered intentional artifacts?

  • The results are intended to influence the end of health and well-being through societal decisions and actions.

# : Nice brief and clear answers. --Mikko Pohjola 09:54, 28 January 2013 (EET)

Homework 2

How is PSSP used in assessments? Are there examples of it in Opasnet that could help to understand the methodology better?

Homework 3


The purpose of the assessment is to determine what is the best way to increase the use of public transport in Kuopio to decrease GEG emissions caused by traffic.


What is the best way to increase the use of public transport in Kuopio?

--# : When you think of it, you probably do not want to increase transportation. Instead, you want to decrease overall transportation by making people switch from cars to public transportation. If you agree, what changes does this imply in your assessment? --Jouni 11:21, 24 January 2013 (EET)

Intended use and users

City of Kuopio, local bus companies, citizens and employers in Kuopio. For the city, bus companies and employers the information is meant to be used in decision-making.


All the intended users

--# : Do you expect that e.g. bus companies actually participate? How? --Jouni 11:21, 24 January 2013 (EET)

--# : In principle, a reasonable assumption. How to get them involved in practice is the challenge. Of course, not all participation necessarily means continuous and deep involvement. --Mikko Pohjola 09:54, 28 January 2013 (EET)


  • Business as usual
  • Lowering ticket prices (by the bus companies or by subsidies from the city)
  • Increasing bus departures and bus lines (with or without decreasing less used departures and lines)
  • Introducing travel cards as employee benefit to employers
  • Different combinations from the scenarios (e.g. lowered ticket prices along with introducing travel cards as employee benefit)


  • Analyses of changes in the use of public transport in different scenarios and the effect of these changes on the amount of other traffic -> estimation of the changes in GEG emissions
  • Estimation of the cost effects in different scenarios (costs separated into costs of the city, companies, employers and passengers)



The amount of GEG emissions and the costs of the city, companies, employers and passengers are...


It seems, that the best way to increase the use of public transport in Kuopio is...



The city of Kuopio

  • Interested in the change in costs of the city and GEG emissions

Bus companies

  • Interested in the change in their costs with different scenarios


  • Interested in their costs


  • Interested in the ticket prices and the accessibility of public transport


Main variables in the assessment are GEG emissions and costs. Health endpoints that should be considered are the ones that are related to GEG emissions.

--# : Renewable fuels should be included as part of the scenarios - I fancy car owners will propose that option as it keeps their cars on the road and the environment doesn't suffer.

  • If renewable fuels are considered, fuel companies will have to be considered in the assessment too --Adedayo 21:07, 11 February 2013 (EET)