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Combustion: one of the major sources of PCDD/Fs. PCDD/Fs are formed during any unfavourable combustion process, if the required materials (chlorine, carbon, and certain metal catalysts) are present. This includes municipal waste incinerators, but also motor vehicles and small-scale burning of mixed materials. Especially unfavourable burning conditions prevail in accidental fires of landfill areas of municipal waste. On the other hand, a first-class incinerator (limit value 1 ng/Nm3 [I-TEq in exhaust gases], obtained by high enough burning temperature, good mixing, long enough residence time for burning gases, and "scrubbing" of the effluent gases to remove fly ash effectively) is an effective ultimate way to remove dioxin-like compounds from the environment. [1]


  1. Jouko Tuomisto, Terttu Vartiainen and Jouni T. Tuomisto: Dioxin synopsis. Report. National Institute for Health and Welfare (THL), ISSN 1798-0089 ; 14/2011 [1]