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Task is a process that is an intentional action with a defined purpose but that is not a method (i.e. a process of manipulating information about descriptions of the reality, typically variables). The difference between a task and a method is that a method is about the topic itself and it is implicit who actually applies the method (it can be a person or even a computer). In contrast, a task is about a particular person and a deed he should do (related to some piece of information). In a sense, a task is an object related to the traditional project management view, in contrast to the other formal objects that focus on the information and not on the people working on it.

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Research question about task
What is a structure for a task such that it
  • applies to any task that may be needed in any work,
  • enables a detailed enough description so that the work can be performed based on it,
  • complies with the structure of the universal objects.


Typical attributes of project management systems are used, adjusted in the PSSP structure.


The attributes of a task.
Attribute Sub-attribute Comments
Name An identifier
  • Purpose
  • Boundaries
  • Input
  • Output
  • Rationale
  • Deadline
  • Responsible person
  • Resources needed to perform the task (including other tasks that must be finished first)
  • A description of the product produced by the task
  • Why the presented procedure fulfills the purpose
  • When the task should be finished
  • Who is responsible for performing the task
  • Log
  • Date finalised
  • Approved by
  • A description about what was done, by whom, and when.
  • The date when the task was finished.
  • Approval by a supervisor (if applicable)