# Unit cost of driving

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## Scope

Costs of driving a car, expressed as €/km. This contains those costs that are proportional to the kilometres driven, i.e. the fuel and maintenance costs. This does not include capital costs and external costs such as costs of pollution or accidents.

## Definition

### Data

Fuel consumption of a vehicle. It is assumed that composite vehicles use diesel fuel and cars use gasoline. The values are based on standardised European consumption values of a new car.

Diesel price for composite vehicles; gasoline price for cars. The values are based on rough follow-up of retail prices in Finland in fall 2004 - summer 2005.

Maintenance costs (service, tyres, oil etc.). This is based on Autoliitto's report 'Costs of car 2004'. Insurance and use tax are excluded, as like capital costs, there may be other reasons to own the car, and then these would be sunken costs. Original values assuming an old car with the original price 20000 e, 20000 km/a of driving (e/a):

• Maintenance 844
• Tyres 320
• total 1164/20000 = 0.0582 e/km

### Causality

• No parents defined.

€/km

### Formula

<anacode> Car_maintenance:= Triangular( 0.03, 0.058, 0.086 )

Fuel_price:= var a:= 0.95*triangular(0.8,1,1.2); var b:= 1.22*triangular(0.8,1,1.2); array(Vehicle_type,[a,a,a,b])

Fuel_consumption:= var a:= (8.7/100)*Triangular(0.75,1,1.25); var b:= (5.7/100)*Triangular(0.75,1,1.25); var c:= (8/100)*Triangular(0.5,1,1.5); a:= array(Vehicle_type,[a,a,b,c]);

fuel_price*fuel_consumption+car_maintenance </anacode>